Valmiki Tiger Reserve

Valmiki Sanctuary

Valmiki Tiger Reserve

Valmiki Tiger reserve is located in the northern-most part of the West Champaran district of the Indian state of Bihar. The tract is broken and undulating, often showing highly fragile geological formations. As a result, there are steep ravines, knife-edge ridges and precipitous walls formed by land slips and soil erosion.


The great Gandak and the Masan rivers collect all the water from their numerous tortuous tributaries. These rivers and streams keep changing course from side to side, facilitated by the erosion prone sandy and immature soil of the banks. Seasonal rivers like Panchanad, Manor, Bhapsa and Kapan display the peculiar behaviour of erosion at one place and deposition of transported soil at another place.

The hill system is a continuation of the Siwalik Range, largely made of imperfectly compacted and ill-formed sandstone dotted with pebbles and boulders. Owing to the fragile nature of the parent rock material, the soil produced at the foothills is immature, loose sand and erosion sheet. The menace is further aggravated by maltreatment of the forests by the people in general and frequent fires and heavy grazing.

Conservation History

Valmiki is the 18th Tiger Reserve of the country and the second in Bihar. The core area of the Reserve was declared as a National Park in 1989. The Government of Bihar had notified 464.60 sq. km. area as Valmiki Wildlife Sanctuary in 1978. Later, in 1990, an area of 419.18 sq. km. was added to the Sanctuary. Thus, the Valmiki Wildlife Sanctuary embraces a total area of 880.78 sq. km.

Archaeological Richness

Lauriya Nandan Garh : There is a lion pillar of Ashoka, which is a single block of polished sand stone, 32′-9.5″ in height with a diameter of 35.5″ at the base and 26.2″ at the top. This pillar is over 2000 year old and in excellent condition. Nanadan Garh is a huge mound composed of bricks and is about 80 feet high. According to an authoritative source, it is an Ashoka Stupa in which ashes of Lord Buddha’s funeral pyre are enshrined.
Bawan Garhi : A name meaning 52 forts. It is also known as Tripan Bazar. The remains of 52 forts and Tripan bazar are at Darubari.
Someshwar Fort : Someshwar Fort is situated in Narkatiagani sub-division, near Nepal border, on top of the someshwar hill at 2884 ft above M.S.L. It is in a ruined state but its remains are well defined.
Triveni : It is a holy place of the Hindus. The name is derived from the fact that three rivers – Gandak, Sonha and Pachanad – merge here soon after they emerge from the hills. Triveni is also believed to be the site at which the fight commenced between the Lords of Forest and Water (the Elephant and Crocodile).

Main Flora

Sal (Shorea robusta), Asan, Karama, Semal, Khair, Cane (Calamus tenuis), Jamun, Siccharrum, Mahulan, Teak etc.

Main Fauna

Tiger, Leopard, Fishing Cat, Leopard Cat, Chital, Sambar, Hog Deer, Black Buck, Gaur, Sloth Bear, Langur, Rhesus Monkey.

Eco Development

Eco-development activities were initiated in the Reserve in 1997-98. Activities such as distribution of fruit bearing plants, installation of hand pumps, construction of ponds, shed, irrigation channel were undertaken. Eco-awareness programmes were conducted. The response of the villagers has been overwhelming. The inhabitants of some of the villages are coming forward voluntarily to assist forest staff in the protection of forest as well as in developmental activities.

Action Points in Pipeline

  • Declaration of permanent Project Circle and Divisions.
  • Establishment of modern communication facilites.
  • Sufficient funds for protection and development.
  • Armament of Forest Personnels posted in the protected Area.
  • Employment opportunities for people in and around the Reserve.


There is a vast scope of eco-tourism, the essential facilities will be generated in future. At present due to the order of the Hon’ble Supreme Court of India, non-forestry activity is not allowed.